A Rohingya’s Pursuit for Justice in Myanmar – CBC The World this Weekend

YANGON –  Wai Wai Nu always wanted to follow in her father’s footsteps – famed Rohingya Muslim politician Kyaw Min – and end the injustice faced by minority groups in Myanmar.

Now, at 31, Nu is the country’s most celebrated Rohingya – calling on Aung San Suu Kyi’s government to uphold the rule of law. For seven years Nu was jailed along with her family. Her law studies were put on hold until being released in 2012 – when Myanmar’s democratic transition began.

Upon release from jail, Nu set up Women’s Peace Network – the first of its kind in Myanmar to represent and defend women from minority groups like the Rohingya. Nu wants to end impunity in Myanmar and hold its leaders accountable – starting with democracy icon and state councilor Suu Kyi.

This story aired on CBC The World this Weekend Saturday, June 16, 2018.

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Thailand to Myanmar Refugee Repatriation Goes Ahead Despite Concerns

Children playing in Mae La Oon refugee camp, three hour drive from across the mountains from the town of Mae Sariang, Thailand

Children playing in Mae La Oon refugee camp, three hour drive from across the mountains from the town of Mae Sariang, Thailand. Photo courtesy of Burma Link.

BANGKOK – With the UN signing a memorandum of understanding in negotiations to repatriate nearly 700,000 Rohingya refugees from camps in Bangladesh to Myanmar’s Rakhine state, its refugee agency has already begun facilitating returns from camps in Thailand to southeast Myanmar.

Ninety-three refugees returned in May from Thailand’s camps to Yangon, Bago and Sagaing regions as well as to Kayin and Kayah states, in Myanmar’s southeast bordering Thailand – where the majority of ethnic Karen and Karenni refugees originate.

“The Burma [Myanmar] army is fighting in Rakhine, Kachin, Shan and almost every day in Karen [Kayin] state,” said Naw Hsa Moon, a 32-year-old ethnic Karen refugee living in Thailand. “It isn’t safe for refugees to return, or else they risk becoming refugees a second time.”

To date, a total of 164 refugees have voluntarily returned to Myanmar from Thailand through the UN Refugee Agency since it began its repatriation program with the Thai and Myanmar governments in late 2016.

“In south-eastern Myanmar, conditions allow for UNHCR to facilitate the voluntary return of refugees from Thailand to that area. In Myanmar’s Rakhine State, however, UNHCR believes that the situation is not yet conducive for the return of Rohingya refugees,” the UN stated in a press release.

This second batch repatriated from Thailand had 20 ethnic Karenni refugees making a first return to Kayah state, where a fragile ceasefire agreement holds between the Myanmar army and a local rebel group.

But in neighbouring Kayin state, increased tensions and militarization has caused many refugees to opt out of the facilitated return – 2,400 ethnic Karen villagers are still displaced from their homes inside Myanmar because of conflict.

Many view the UNHCR refugee repatriation as not being safe, secure and dignified return at the moment, as promised by the UN.

“The initial number to return was 161. The actual number who went back this time was 93. That’s a huge drop, nearly 50 per cent,” said Leena Zieger, director of Burma Link, an organization based across the border in Mae Sot, Thailand.

Nearly 100,000 refugees live in Thailand’s nine camps established 30 years ago to provide safety and security to those fleeing attacks by Myanmar’s military, known as the Tatmadaw.

Thailand isn’t a signatory to the UN Refugee Convention but refugees from Myanmar are allowed to remain in the country legally if they are registered with UNHCR at one of the nine refugee camps along its border.

Refugees inside Thailand are restricted from leaving the camps, and are not allowed to work. Humanitarian assistance is provided. But refugees and agencies argue food aid has been reduced significantly in recent years because of budget cuts by donor countries.

“I don’t know how [the] UNHCR can say that it’s a voluntary return. Refugee repatriation needs to be genuinely voluntary and it should not be reinforced by these outside factors like cutting rations and assistance in the camps,” Zieger said.

The Border Consortium provides aid to refugees in Thailand. The TBC states over the last six years 18,000 refugees have left the camps in Thailand to Myanmar without any form of UN or government assistance.

TBC Executive Director Sally Thompson told The Irrawaddy News that 4,095 of them returned in 2017, making the UN repatriation program seem like a drop in the bucket in comparison.

But the reason why so many refugees leave the camps without going through official channels, like the UNHCR repatriation program, is so they may be able to keep their status as refugees and return to the camps if fighting resumes in their communities along the border.

“If someone asks me to go back I have no place to stay. I have no land,” Moon said. “We have nothing. My parents left Burma [Myanmar] when they were young and I was born in the refugee camp.”

The UN, Thailand and Myanmar require all refugees being repatriated to give up their status. The UN provides cash for reintegration and an assistance package including food, mosquito nets, travel bags, family hygiene and sanitary kits for women, along with transportation.

But the UNHCR promises it will monitor those repatriated for up to one year.

In Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camp, the UNHCR gives cash to Somali refugees to facilitate voluntary repatriation. Some have accepted to return out of financial necessity, to pay off debts, rather than return in a safe, secure and dignified manner as reported by The Washington Post newspaper.

“It breaks my heart. We can’t stop refugees from leaving the camps to return,” Moon said. “But the situation in the refugee camps continues to worsen forcing many to consider leaving because there’s not enough food available.”

Last April, clashes between the Myanmar army and ethnic armed groups in Kachin and Shan states forced 8,000 people out of their homes and into several of the 165 displacement camps established in the north of Myanmar.

This adds to the 99,678 internally displaced people in Myanmar’s northernmost states, according to UN figures. Humanitarian organizations are unable to assist those displaced inside Myanmar because of tight security restrictions placed on groups providing aid by Myanmar’s government.

A group providing humanitarian assistance to those displaced from their homes by the fighting in Kachin state, between the Myanmar army and Kachin Independence Army, has now been banned by the military from doing its work in conflict-affected areas.

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Thailand’s New Media Protest Leader – CBC The World this Weekend

BANGKOK – Bow Nutta Mahattana wears a cartoon t-shirt mocking Thai Prime Minister, and junta leader, Prayuth Chan-ocha with a nose like Pinocchio.

The 39-year-old mother and teacher is facing a lengthy prison sentence for staging anti-junta protests – and harnessing the power of Facebook Live – to demand elections in Thailand.

“The message is because he has told lies so many times he’s become General ‘Yuth-nocchio,’” Mahattana said with a smile.

The former military general-turned-prime minister recently postponed the election for the fourth time since his ruling junta, the National Council for Peace and Order, came to power in 2014 coup. This story aired on CBC The World this Weekend Saturday, May 12, 2018.

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Rohingya Refugees are Rushing to Escape Monsoon Season

Haji Ismael

Haji Ismael, 49, is managing director of Rohingya Peace Network of Thailand

Experts fear a return of the kind of desperation that fed the 2015 boat crisis as the storms hit Bangladesh’s coast.

BANGKOK, Thailand – Torrential rains along the Myanmar-Bangladesh border are threatening to make an already grim situation for the nearly 700,000 Rohingya refugees who fled genocidal violence back home even worse as the monsoon storms hit the overcrowded, makeshift camps.

Now, regional governments and human rights groups are bracing for an influx of new refugee boats as Rohingya flee rapidly deteriorating conditions in coastal camps and continued danger back in Rakhine State.

“I can say that in a very short time more Rohingya boats will come [to Thailand],” said Haji Ismael, the director of Rohingya Peace Network of Thailand. “What is our future? It’s hopeless.”

In late April, 76 Rohingya Muslims arrived in Aceh, in northern Sumatra, on a boat that was set adrift for nine days after it left Myanmar. Earlier that same month, five Rohingya refugees were rescued at sea by Indonesian fishermen in East Aceh, although it’s unknown if they set sail from Myanmar, Bangladesh, or elsewhere in the region.

Another boat, this one carrying 56 Rohingya refugees, most of them women and children, also docked at the Thai island of Koh Lanta in early May. There, the refugees were given food, water, and fuel before being told to continue on toward Malaysia, their intended destination, according to Thai authorities.

Despite sharing a land border and maritime boundary with Myanmar, Thailand doesn’t officially recognize the rights of asylum seekers and refugees. The country is not a signatory to the UN Refugee Convention, but refugee camps along its border with Myanmar have existed for more than 30 years.

The Thai government still refuses to allow boats to enter Thailand and orders its navy to push boats back to sea, even as neighboring countries like Malaysia and Indonesia have taken some refugees in since the 2015 Andaman Sea boat crisis. Thai authorities now provide what they call “humanitarian consideration” to boats at sea, hoping to persuade them to continue their journey to elsewhere.

“While Thailand is not a signatory to the refugee convention, they are still bound to the duty to rescue persons in distress at sea [that] is enshrined in international maritime law,” said Lilianne Fan, an expert on Myanmar and director of Geutanyoe Foundation, an Aceh-based group dedicated to helping rescue refugees at sea.

Ismael's documents

Ismael shows his Thai certificate of residence. He has lived in Thailand for 24 years

Thailand has defended its resistance to accept refugees into the country by claiming that the boats carrying Rohingya Muslims are destined for Malaysia, though Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha told the press in 2017 that Thailand was ready to “receive various displaced people” and “send them back when they’re ready.”

“Thailand should help these people,” said Puttanee Kangkun, a Thai human rights specialist at the nonprofit Fortify Rights. “We don’t know what they face at sea or if they can make it to their destination safely. They have to be treated and interviewed to see whether they have come voluntarily or not. We must investigate what’s going on. It’s not [right] to give food and push them away.”

About 5,000 Rohingya currently live in Thailand permanently but half of them are undocumented, or living illegally, according to estimates by Haji Ismael. This makes advocacy by Rohingya in Thailand on behalf of new Rohingya arrivals, by land or sea, difficult. Today, undocumented Rohingya refugees in Thailand are treated like all other immigrants subject to arrest and deportation, not as asylum seekers and refugees in need of protection.

Thailand signed the ASEAN Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, especially women and children in November 2015. This means it is obliged by this convention to help victims of human trafficking. If the Rohingya Muslims declare they have been trafficked to Thailand, their only option is to live in government-run shelters rather than the immigration detention centers they would be sent to otherwise.

“It is critical that ASEAN takes steps to develop a dedicated policy for refugee protection that includes rescue at sea, admission to territory, safe reception, access to humanitarian assistance, and alternatives to detention,” Fan told VICE.

And while the international attention remains on the plight of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, rights groups say not enough is being done to help Rohingya Muslims remaining in Myanmar, who are also facing the risks of extreme weather and continued violence.

“With the monsoon season fast approaching, there has been a race against time for Rohingya to escape Rakhine,” Fan explained. “There’s an entire population of displaced people in Rakhine state with no solution to their situation.”

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Rohingya Refugees Face New Threat in Bangladesh camps

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Zahida Begum speaks to Rohingya women at a community meeting in Kutupalong camp

COX’S BAZAR, Bangladesh – Inside the sprawling Kutupalong refugee settlement, dust swirls around the barren hills where over half a million Rohingya Muslims have taken shelter after fleeing Myanmar’s Rakhine state.

“Before this entire area was covered with trees,” said Zahida Begum as she swept her arm across the vista of Kutupalong’s newest camp extension. “But families have cut down the trees for firewood.”

Begum, 28, is a mother of four living in Kutupalong. Her family fled Buthidaung, Myanmar across the river to Teknaf, Bangladesh in 1992, when she was eighteen-months-old.

She has lived almost her entire life in Kutupalong and fondly remembers the forested landscape and wild elephant encounters of her youth.

The UN Refugee Agency – UNHCR – states nearly 700,000 Rohingyas have arrived in Bangladesh since Myanmar began its latest military crackdown last August in Rakhine state.

Several makeshift camps have sprung up around Begum’s home in Kutupalong to accommodate the rapid influx of refugees. She jumped at the chance to help them.

Most Rohingyas have shared stories of unimaginable violence labeled “ethnic cleansing” by the U.S. and UN. But international observers say these crimes perpetrated by Myanmar could amount to genocide.

With her fluency in both Bengali and Rohingya, Begum leads a group of 60 refugee volunteers in Kutupalong. She visits new arrivals to the camp and finds out what they need and how she can help.

According to the Bangladesh government’s Refugee Relief and Repatriation Commission, or RRRC, Begum’s work is invaluable.

RRRC camp leader Shamimal Huq Pavel praises Begum’s ability to communicate Rohingya womens’ and families’ needs to aid organizations. He added that she has built trust with both women and men in the camp.

Pavel sends Begum out every day to meet with Rohingya women. She reports back to him about any issues they face in the camp. He takes Begum’s reports seriously because women are often left out of the decision-making process in the conservative Rohingya Muslim community.

“I work with majhis [community leaders] on resolving family disputes,” Begum said. “If a man beats his wife, we can take action.”

In 2017, Begum heard about the attacks on Rohingya villages in Myanmar. She raised thousands of dollars to coordinate an evacuation of women and children from Buthidaung to safety in Bangladesh.

“I met Zahida when I was doing a Human Rights Watch interview. We were interviewing her family members,” said Nafessa Shamsuddin, spokesperson at BRAC, Bangladesh’s largest aid agency.

“What impressed me the most was the fact that she rescued 400 people,” Shamsuddin added.

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Begum speaks to volunteers after a coordination meeting with aid groups at Kutupalong

The newest threat facing Rohingya refugees in Kutupalong settlement is living in flood prone or unsuitable hillside areas.

In the coastal Cox’s Bazar district of Bangladesh, where both Kutupalong and Nayapara refugee camps are located, rains may cause a catastrophe, states the UN.

“They know the monsoon is coming but they don’t understand how serious it can be,” Begum said. “Those living at the top of the hill will have shelters destroyed by cyclones. Those living at the bottom will be flooded.”

The UN has identified more than 150,000 refugees living in Kutupalong at risk of flooding and landslides.

Begum has joined an initiative set up by the Bangladesh government and Red Crescent Society called Cyclone Preparedness Program, or CPP. She leads local volunteers, both from the host and refugee communities, to help relocate the most vulnerable.

“We’re working together to train the community [on] how to upgrade their homes and what to do in this situation,” Begum said.

UNHCR spokesperson Caroline Gluck said CPP and other volunteer programs are an effort to protect families most likely to be affected by floods and landslides during the coming monsoon season.

“We’re trying to make these volunteers help empower Rohinyga. It’s important for us to find women to take part in these roles as much as men,” Gluck added.

Ajam Khatum, 28, is a mother of three living in Kutupalong. She comes from Rathedaung, Myanmar and volunteers alongside Begum.

“I enjoy working with Zahida [Begum]. Whenever we have meetings together, she is very helpful,” Khatum said. “I follow her lead.”

Begum looks a bit embarrassed by all the praise heaped on her from Pavel, Shamsuddin and Khatum. She knows her education sets her apart from other Rohingya in the camp and wants to give back to her community.

“Now women have the opportunity to receive an education,” Begum said. “Very few people in the Rohingya community are educated. NGOs are paying women to work, giving us opportunities to provide for our families. This changes our lives.”

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Life in Bali’s Evacuation Centres for People with Disabilities


Sueca Pura Sports Stadium in east Bali was turned into an evacuation centre

A 2017 National Labour Force Survey cited 21 million working age people with disabilities in Indonesia. The University of Indonesia states PwDs are 4.2 per cent of the population.

Millions of tourists flock to Bali every year making it one of Indonesia’s most inclusive islands. But it can be an extremely difficult place for the 34,801 disabled Balinese.

BALI, Indonesia – The island’s most iconic peak is Mount Agung, home of the most sacred Balinese Hindu temple Besakih.

In 2017, Mount Agung erupted forcing over 70,000 people living near the volcano into evacuation centres in east Bali – one of the island’s poorest areas. One hundred and ten of them were people with disabilities.

For four months all displaced Balinese lived in makeshift camps, away from their homes, farms and livelihoods.

In February 2017, Indonesia’s Centre for Volcanology and Geological Disaster Hazard Mitigation lowered Mount Agung’s alert status from level 4 – its highest in over 50 years – to level 3. This meant all but 2,536 of the most vulnerable evacuees could return home.

Despite this move, volcanologists predict Mount Agung could have a major eruption at any moment. All but eight people with disabilities inside the evacuation centres were allowed to leave. Even with a reduced strain on resources, life is still a challenge for those inside.

Deden and Durma

Nengah Deden helps her son Kadek Durma move his legs

Kadek Durma looks uncomfortable as he sits and waits on his sleeping mat for his younger brother to return to the evacuation centre and carry him to the toilet.

Durma, aged 25 years, is mentally disabled. His mother Nengah Deden, aged 67 years, brought him to the evacuation centre last September before the volcano’s eruption with the help of others from Kesimpar village, located on the slopes of Mount Agung.

Deden said most days her son, Durma, waits so long, his stomach tightens and pain turns his smile into a grimace.

“We need a wheelchair so I can take him to the toilet when he needs to go,” Deden said, as she crossed his legs into a comfortable seated position.

In 2016, the government passed a law detailing the obligation to fulfil the rights of people with disabilities in accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights for Persons with Disabilities. Indonesia’s government has yet to implement any public policy change regarding this new law.

Indonesia’s Ministry of Social Affairs states it is strengthening the coordination among ministries to implement the 2016 law on disabilities, and it encourages local governments to make its own regulations related to disability.

People with disabilities face discrimination. According to traditional beliefs, it is a common perception among Indonesians that people become disabled because of past sins, either committed by the individual or the family.

“Most Indonesians believe it’s a kind of punishment if a family member is disabled. Many aren’t allowed to leave home, go to school, or find work,” said Pak Latra, founder of Puspadi Bali, an organization providing quality rehabilitation, education and training and advocacy programs for people with disabilities.

Seventy five per cent of the NGO’s staff has a disability, including Latra.

“Our goal and mission is to collect data from each village so we can learn how many more people with disabilities exist. The reality today is many families are embarrassed and feel ashamed to admit a member of their family has a disability. But slowly it’s getting better,” said Nyoman Wenten, head of division at Bali’s social services department.

Wenten said his department works with the Ministry of Social Affairs in Jakarta to address the needs of people with disabilities. A vocational training program exists to allow people with disabilities in Bali, often deprived of education because of stigma, to receive employable skills.

Mount Agung erupted in November 2017. 70,610 Balinese living inside the evacuation zone were relocated to 240 evacuation centres in east Bali. Today, only 52 evacuation centres remain operational. One hundred and two people with disabilities have returned to their homes in villages near the volcano.

Narrow roads up to these mountainous villages and a lack of reliable transportation for people with disabilities makes evacuation in an emergency extremely difficult. But for those who’ve chosen to remain at the evacuation centres, life isn’t much easier.


Agriculture Technical Implementation Unit Shelter. A model evacuation centre

Deden and her son Durma have been sleeping on the floor in a communal area at Agriculture Technical Implementation Unit Shelter, once sheltering 1,328 evacuees but now only 465 remain – including four people with disabilities – in east Bali’s Rendang district of Karangasem Regency.

“I can’t move him myself. He’s too big. I’m too old,” Deden said. “Nobody around here helps me, so he must wait for his brother to return at night from work.”

There are no mobility aids or assistance devices such as wheelchairs, crutches or walking sticks available. This leaves people with disabilities unable to move unless someone carries them – making them reliant on others for basic tasks.

“Wheelchairs cost as much as motorbikes in Indonesia. This makes it impossible for most people to afford one,” said Irwanto, founder of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Indonesia. He’s currently a professor in the Department of Psychology at Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia.


Irwanto in his office at Atma Jaya Catholic University in Jakarta

Irwanto has used a wheelchair for 14 years. He lives in the capital, Jakarta, and is the author of Making Disability Rights Real in Southeast Asia. Irwanto criticized Indonesia’s government for being slow in implementing the new law to improve the lives of Indonesians with disabilities.

Puspadi Bali has filled this gap, left by the government, and has distributed 1,870 wheelchairs and other assistive devices over the last 10 years. But Latra admits the need is great.

Mobility is the biggest issue for Deden, Durma and three elderly people with disabilities at this evacuation centre. Like in their villages, here nothing is constructed with disability in mind.

Wayan Gatri, 93, sits on the floor propped up by the doorframe of a former storage room. She is paralyzed from the waist down.

“I must wait for my great grandson to return from work at night to carry me to the toilet,” Gatri said. “I don’t have a wheelchair and my great granddaughter can’t carry me.”

Gatri was first displaced by Mount Agung’s 1963 eruption. She remembers it quite vividly. “It suddenly erupted. And you could see the fire coming from the top of the mountain. The sound was very loud,” she said excitedly.

At the time, Gatri spent five months in an evacuation centre with her husband and two children. But she knows she’ll be here much longer, already surpassing the five month mark since she was evacuated.

Now Gatri is solely reliant on family to tend to her at home and in the evacuation centre. Her great grandson told her the home and farm has been covered by thick volcanic ash since last November’s eruption.

This has caused her a great amount of stress because she misses the smell of her durian and dragon fruit.

“I don’t like here. I prefer to choose going back home. But it is not safe for me to return,” she added. “I don’t want to be a burden on others here.” Agriculture and animal husbandry is a livelihood for all Balinese living inside the evacuation centre.


Volcanologist Gede Swantika shows Mount Agung’s path of destruction

February 10, the Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation lowered the evacuation zone radius from eight to four kilometres allowing tens of thousands of evacuees to return to their homes and farms. It said the decision was made because of the volcano’s reduced activity.

Three days later, Mount Agung sent columns of volcanic ash into the sky.

The last time the evacuation zone radius was lowered in January 2017, one thousand evacuees returned home. This was done to reduce the strain on resources. Twenty centres were closed, so more attention could be focused on the 220 other centres remaining open.

But all 110 people with disabilities remained inside the evacuation centres until February when most were given the option to leave and took it.

Despite the lowering of Mount Agung’s threat level, a major eruption could happen at any moment. British journalist Simon Winchester writes in his 2003 book Krakatoa The Day the World Exploded:

“Indonesia, itself, has and has had more volcanoes and more volcanic activity than any other political entity on the earth, in all recorded history. It is a country that is defined by its place at the heart of a subduction zone and is essentially made up of volcanoes and precious little else.”

Improving mobility and accessibility for the eight people with disabilities and inside all the 52 remaining evacuation centres is the most pressing concern for Latra and Puspadi Bali.

Pak Latra - Pusapadi Bali

Pak Latra outside Puspadi Bali’s office at Annika Linden Centre

“Nothing about us without us,” Latra said. This is the mantra for inclusivity. Latra and Irwanto believe people with disabilities must be included in decision-making regarding their health and livelihoods.

“I think accessibility is very important,” Irwanto said. “But to change peoples’ minds and to change how people see and treat those with disabilities, that needs time. There needs to be more education and advocacy work.”

The reality is a household containing a family member with a disability in Indonesia is three times more likely to live in poverty than a household without. The 2014 University of Indonesia study Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia goes on to state “people with disabilities were 30 to 50 per cent more likely to be poor than non disabled people, especially in urban areas.”

The only way to address the high rates of poverty for people with disabilities is through government policies prioritizing access to education, employment and health services.

Irwanto said a good start would be for the Indonesia government to provide people with disabilities national health insurance coverage.

“They say because of pre-existing conditions, we are not able to receive coverage,” Irwanto said. He added that medication, prosthetics and assistive devices are a huge cost to people with disabilities and, if covered, could help them go to school or work.

“It remains important to educate our public officials and, especially policy makers and community leaders on the situation and conditions of Indonesia’s people with disabilities,” Irwanto said. “We need to promote the ‘ability paradigm’ to counter the ‘deficit paradigm’ that was engendered in the previous law and is still in the minds of people today. Public policy should start with ‘accessibility first’ in all public services –including school and health facilities.”

Back at the evacuation centre, Deden, Durma and Gatri are resigned to wait for assistance. All their lives they’ve done the same and nothing has changed. Around them roosters still crow, birds still chirp, and children still play.

But they don’t want to be a burden on others in the evacuation centre. They ask for access to a wheelchair to improve their mobility around the facility. In the case of another emergency they don’t want to rely on family and friends to evacuate them to safety. Next time they feel they may be forgotten.

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Indonesia’s Rohingya Refugees to Resettle to the U.S. or Remain?

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In an archipelago with more islands than refugees, Indonesia is looking at ways to provide education, health and housing to its 13,800 registered refugees and asylum seekers. But advocates argue accessing livelihoods is the biggest unmet need.

MEDAN, Indonesia – Muhammad Rofiq uses his mobile phone to log into his resettlement case file online, outside of the shelter in Medan where he’s lived since 2016.

A status update told him he should expect to leave Indonesia for the U.S. this month.

“I will finally go to America,” said Rofiq, a Rohingya refugee among the 1,807 rescued by fishermen off the coast of Aceh, on the island of Sumatra, in 2015.

Rofiq, 24, is one of an unspecified number of Rohingya refugees selected for resettlement to the U.S. under an agreement made with Indonesia during the 2015 Andaman Sea Crisis.

Indonesia committed to host the Rohingya for one year at refugee shelters set up and run by the International Organization for Migration. Almost three years later and many remain in Indonesia uncertain what will come next.

Rofiq was expecting to leave Indonesia last August when President Trump’s 120-day refugee ban cancelled his plan. He’s hoping restrictive policies won’t affect his upcoming departure.

The U.S. government cut its quota for resettlement with the UN Refugee Agency by half this fiscal year. Experts argue the U.S. may not even reach this 45,000 limit by September.

This may delay many Rohingya in Medan waiting to leave Indonesia for the U.S.

“Some have been in the resettlement pipeline, but now that’s all been thrown out by these restrictive policies governments are implementing,” said Thomas Vargas, UNHCR Indonesia Representative.

In Medan and Makassar – two cities sheltering the majority of the 800 Rohingya refugees in Indonesia – some are waiting for final approval to resettle in the U.S. while the majority must remain indefinitely.

The IOM runs 18 refugee shelters in Medan and 12 in Makassar, housing the majority of Rohingyas in Indonesia.

Last February, all refugees in Indonesia were informed by the UNHCR that resettlement is no longer an option. Indonesia hosts 13,800 registered refugees and asylum seekers.

“Resettlement is not a catch all solution. It’s really, especially these days, a band-aid approach to helping refugees,” Vargas said. “Unfortunately, it’s become even more difficult with this kind of situation and environment that we’ve got globally.”

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Muhammad Rofiq outside of the refugee shelter he’s called home since 2016

Last February, Rofiq confirms 20 Rohingyas from his refugee shelter in Medan left for the U.S. Twenty-nine there are expecting to leave in the coming weeks.

“It makes me sad when I think how many have already left and I’m still here,” Rofiq said.

Two Rohingya men who had arrived in Indonesia before 2015 cried when they received the news from the UNHCR that they must remain in Indonesia with no hope of being resettled to another country.

They have spent years living at refugee shelters in Medan with their families but were not considered for resettlement to the U.S. because both left temporarily to find work in Malaysia.

Refugees in Makassar protested outside of the UNHCR office when they received the news that those not already selected for resettlement would have to remain indefinitely.

Indonesia does not allow permanent residency for refugees and asylum seekers. Even refugees who’ve married Indonesians and have had children are still not allowed to remain, officially.

In Indonesia’s capital Jakarta, many refugees who were living independently, without assistance, are now sleeping outside of an immigration detention centre hoping to be allowed inside.

Indonesia’s president decreed in 2017 that more refugee shelters must be set up to accommodate them. This has caused confusion in the refugee community with many turning up at immigration detention centres hoping to be processed and allocated housing.

The International Concern Group for the Rohingya states Indonesia must come up with a more permanent solution for its 13,800 refugees.

Adli Abdullah is the secretary at The International Concern Group for the Rohingya. He lives and teaches in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, where most of the Rohingya arrived by boat prior to May 2015.

He wants to see Indonesia adopt a different approach for its refugees and asylum seekers, by giving them a chance to create livelihood opportunities.

“I think the Indonesian government can learn from Malaysia,” said Abdullah. “They are more human in the way they treat [the] Rohingya.”

Both Indonesia and Malaysia are not signatories to the UN Refugee Convention. Malaysia hosts 152,170 registered refugees and asylum seekers. It is illegal for refugees to work in Malaysia but many are able to eke out an existence.

In Indonesia, the IOM provides an allowance for refugees living at its shelters. It also provides vocational training. Refugee children are even allowed to enroll at government-run schools in Indonesia, something Malaysia does not allow.

But many refugee families in Indonesia are unable to provide transportation fees for their children to attend local schools.

Rofiq has been teaching math and English to Rohingyas living at his shelter in Medan. This has kept him occupied during the days, while at nights he reviews his American cultural orientation booklet.

“I read it every night,” he said. “I know President Trump doesn’t like refugees.”

In a phone conversation with Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, Trump said: “I hate taking these people. I guarantee you they are bad.”

President Trump was referring to a 2016 pledge Barack Obama had made to accept vulnerable refugees and asylum seekers among the 1,200 held at Australia’s offshore detention facilities – many of them were intercepted leaving Indonesia.

The number of refugees being resettled from Indonesia has been shrinking over the last few years as the global refugee crisis has grown. According to the UN, there are now 65 million people displaced worldwide. Over 20 million are refugees.

Less than one percent of them are resettled every year.

A date has now been set for Rofiq and he’s optimistic he’ll be leaving for the U.S. in the coming weeks.

“I [received] my ticket,” Rofiq said. “I am lucky. I will have freedom.”

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moondrops on A Visit to the Cemetery of Pol…